The regulation of glucose concentration in the blood is under insulin dependence, a hormone secreted by the pancreas. This hormone is said to be hypoglycemic: it promotes the storage of glucose circulating in muscle, fat and hepatic cells. In diabetics, these cells respond less well to insulin. We talk about insulin resistance, a phenomenon that interests researchers because it appears very early in the course of diabetes. This is because people with insulin resistance may be at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes, which corresponds to 90% of cases.
A study conducted by researchers at Northwestern University in Chicago suggests a simple way to reduce this risk factor, directly related to healthy living. Unveiled on the occasion of ENDO 2021, the annual meeting of the Endocrine Society, which claims that people who start to eat in the morning before 8:30 a.m. had lower blood sugar and less insulin resistance, which could reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. And that they “limit their food intake to less than 10 hours a day or that their alimentary consommation or spread over more than 13 hours per day. “, Explain the researchers.
What “nutritional strategy” to adopt?
Insulin resistance and high blood sugar levels affect a person’s metabolism, including breaking down food into its simpler components: protein, carbohydrates (or sugars), and fat. Metabolic disorders such as diabetes occur when these normal processes are disrupted. “With an increase in metabolic disorders such as diabetes, we wanted to broaden our understanding of nutritional strategies to help address this growing concern. », Specifies Professor Marriam Ali, main author of the study. The scientific team looked specifically at the effects of intermittent fasting on metabolic health.
More precisely, it was a question of knowing whether, in the context of a diet limited in time over a well-defined period, the eating earlier in the day affected metabolism, including fasting glucose (blood sugar levels) and an estimate of insulin resistance. Researchers analyzed data from 10,575 adults who participated in a national health and nutrition survey. They divided the participants into three groups based on the total duration of their food intake: less than 10 hours, 10-13 hours, and more than 13 hours per day. They then created six subgroupss depending on the start time the duration of the meal (before or after 8:30 am).
Eat as early as possible in the morning … and in the evening?
The researchers analyzed this data to determine whether the duration and timing of feeding were associated with fasting blood sugar, and an estimate of the level. insulin resistance. It turns out that fasting blood sugar levels did not differ significantly between groups. However, insulin resistance was higher with a shorter feeding interval, but lower in the groups with a meal start time before 8:30 a.m. “These results suggest that the time of food intake is more strongly associated with metabolic measurements than with duration, and supports early feeding strategies. », Concludes the scientific team.
Note that this is not the first time that the impact of the meal schedule on the level of insulin and fasting blood sugar is discussed. In 2017, a scientific study affirmed that adopting the bad habit of eating late or snacking at night over the long term can dangerously alter the metabolism by promoting higher levels of insulin, fasting blood sugar, cholesterol. and triglycerides, which increases the risk of chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes. In general, it is therefore recommended that people with diabetes ideally adopt a similar meal schedule from one day to the next for optimal management of their blood sugar.