In type 2 diabetes, diet, combined with physical activity, can control the disease and even delay or even avoid taking medication. From breakfast to dessert, here are the key principles of the diet to adopt.
Contrary to type 1 diabetics who must inject for lifeinsulin, type 2 diabetics may improve their condition and lower their blood sugar by changing their eating habits and losing weight. Advice from Patricia Fiquet, dietician at Cochin hospital.
Breakfast for a type 2 diabetic
In order not to “panic” your blood sugar, you opt for:
- Of whole wheat bread, tradition, with cereals, black with rye: 60 to 80 g, or the equivalent of 1/3 or 1/4 of a baguette, with a knob of butter. What about “gluten-free” breads? “Unless you are allergic or intolerant, it is better to avoid when you are diabetic because they increase blood sugar even more. “
- A dairy (yogurt, cottage cheese…) or a slice of ham or a little cheese (30 g maximum) which “stalls” without increasing blood sugar. Or, if you have a “sweet tooth”, by 1 tbsp. homemade fruit compote.
For lunch and dinner, the ideal plate
The ideal plate for midday and evening meals should contain:
- 1/3 vegetables : cabbage, spinach, green beans, zucchini …
- 1/3 protein (meat, fish, egg).
- 1/3 starchy foods, favoring the less hyperglycemic: pulses, al dente pasta, basmati rice, sweet potatoes, potatoes cooked in their skin, quinoa …
Eating sardines regularly helps prevent type 2 diabetes
According to a study published in March 2021 in the review Clinical Nutritionot, regular consumptionof sardines helps prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes thanks to the nutrients they contain in large quantities, including taurine, omega-3, calcium and vitamin D. “This is a huge scientific discovery. It is easy to recommend this food during medical examinations, and it is widely accepted by the population, explains Prof. Diana D. Rizzolo, lead author of the study.
152 patients who had been diagnosed with prediabetes were put on a nutritional program aimed at reducing the risk of developing the disease, but only a small group received the instruction add 200 grams of sardines to their diet each week. Among this group, 37% of people were at high risk of developing diabetes at the start of the study. But after a year of study, only 8% remained at very high risk. Improvements were also seen in other important parameters, such as a reduced insulin resistance index, increased ‘good’ cholesterol (HDL), and decreased triglycerides and blood pressure.
Among the group that did not include not eating sardines, 27% of the limbs were at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes before the study. After a year, 22% of them ended up in the same category.
What to eat for dessert in case of type 2 diabetes?
As often as possible, we eat a plain yogurt without sugar, or fruits at 0% fat and no added sugars + 1 fresh fruit.
Occasionally : a sweet dessert that does not suddenly raise blood sugar: “A fruit yogurt or 2 scoops of ice cream or sorbet or a small slice of homemade cake or pie by reducing the quantities of sugar and fat indicated in the recipe. ”
Should we plan a snack or not?
“If we are hungry yes, but rather in the middle of the afternoon if you have type 2 diabetes, because in the morning your blood sugar is often a little high. »For example, we opt for:
- 1 fresh fruit and / or 3 or 4 low-fat and low-sugar cookies such as Petit-Beurre.
- 1 slice of bread + 1 small piece of cheese if you haven’t eaten it at other meals.
Prefer whole fruits
Because if the fruit fructose raises blood sugar, they provide in return fibers that regulate it, but also vitamins, minerals… “We prefer them fresh and whole, without exceeding 2 or 3 servings per day. ”
Knowing that a serving corresponds to 1 apple, 1 orange, 1 pear, 1 medium banana, 2 kiwis, 2 clementines, 1 small bunch of grapes (100 g, 150 g) or 1 tray of strawberries (250 g).
What if we skip a meal?
” If we are diabetic without treatment, there is no risk except that of nibblesr or compensate for the next meal, which can be avoided with a small snack, ”reassures Patricia Fiquet. People with type 1 or 2 diabetes on insulin can also skip a meal, provided that they remove the rapid insulin injection corresponding to the meal in question. “The same goes for those who take glinides: just do not take the tablet for the meal in question. “On the other hand, it is absolutely necessary to avoid if you are on sulfonylureabecause there is a risk of hypoglycemia.
What about intermittent fasting ? Some studies show that a short fast, from 4 p.m. to 8 p.m. without eating, and intermittent, once a week, have a real effect on weight control and improves blood parameters, including blood sugar. “But to my knowledge, this method has not shown superiority over a conventional low-calorie diet in type 2 diabetics,” emphasizes the dietician.
They provide a great service to diabetics, but recent studies show that heavy consumption, especially through candies (every day) and light drinks (1.5 L per week), increases rather than reduces the risk of diabetes, and may even make it worse. The stevia seems to be so far thesweetener safest.
Alcohol: the less you drink, the better
There is no no formal prohibition, but the less you drink, the better, whether you need to control your weight in case of type 2 diabetes (alcohol is sweet, therefore caloric), or whether you have type 1 diabetes, because alcohol can cause low blood sugar : “You can allow yourself a drink during a meal, but not every day, and favoring less sweet alcohols. »That is to say: red wine, dry white wine, champagne, certain aperitifs (Pastis, Pernod, Ricard, Suze), rum, gin, vodka, whiskey and digestives (Armagnac, Calvados, Cognac, eaux-de- life).