We are talking aboutrenal failure when the kidneys no longer function properly, when they do not eliminate waste from the body well, nor do they manage to balance the various substances in the body: water, salt, potassium, calcium, etc.
” It exists multiple levels of kidney failure, specifies Dr. Decourt, nephrologist, and the only way to know if you are suffering from this pathology is to realize a blood test with a creatinine dosage or a urinalysis with protein assay. “
Kidney disease: what foods to restrict?
THE’western food is too high in salt and too low in fiber. It is therefore necessary to modify his food hygiene to preserve his kidneys.
- Salt : “Its consumption must not exceed 6 g per day, specifies the nephrologist, because salt promotes the appearance of hypertension which plays a role in kidney disease. »So we do not add salt to our dishes, and we think of replace it with spices, aromatic herbs, condiments as flavor enhancers. “You should know that it is difficult to quantify your daily salt intake,” says the doctor. But, just a baguette already contains 4 g. “
- The cold cuts : although since the 2000s, producers of cold cuts have reduced the salt content by 10 to 15%. as little as possible », Advises Dr Decourt. For information, a slice of 30 g of dry skinned ham, defatted contains 1.6 g of salt; 5 slices of dry sausage, ie 30 g, provide 1.4 g; 1 slice of 45 g of superior cooked ham contains 0.7 g of it; a portion of 40 g of country pâté: 0.76 g; 1 Strasbourg sausage of 35 g, 0.7 g; and a 40 g portion of 0.5 g rillettes.
- Smoked fish They also contain high salt contents. The ten most salty fish and shellfish whose consumption should be restricted as much as possible are: salted cod, salted mackerel, clam, shrimp, cuttlefish, spider crab, scallops, anchovies, herring, American lobster.
- Animal proteins : “When you have kidney failure,it is not necessary not exceed 0.6 g to 0.8 g maximum of animal protein per day per kilogram of body weight, specifies the nephrologist in order not to overload the kidneys with nitrogenous waste such as urea. A more important restriction can be proposed by the nephrologist during stages 4 and 5 of the disease, on condition of supplementing the essential amino acids that the body does not know how to manufacture. We favor vegetable proteins. We can also become vegetarian and supplement with synthetic proteins. ” For information: a 120 g chicken cutlet provides 32 g of protein; a 100 g minced steak, 26 g of protein; a slice of ham 40 g, 10 g of protein; 150 g serving of fresh salmon, 34 g of protein; yogurt, 5 g of protein; a portion of camembert of 30 g, 6 g of protein.
- The alcohol is, too, to consume with great moderation ” because he increases blood pressure, which can have repercussions on the kidneys, ”explains Dr. Decourt.
- Processed products : preserves, prepared meals, sauces and industrial soups… should also be avoided as much as possible.
The right DASH diet to follow
” In case of’renal failure, we are moving towards a type diet DASH, recommends the nephrologist. The latter advises to consume 8 to 10 fruits and vegetables per day, 6 to 8 cereal products, seeds and legumes 4 to 5 times a week, fish, white meat or poultry 2 times a day maximum as well as fat, and only occasional sweets. “
As for the cooking method, “we prefer cooking in water, in papillote or at the steam », Suggests the doctor. We avoid fried foods.
What to drink in case of kidney failure?
” We drink lightly mineralized spring or mineral water. The use oftap water is quite suitable, very economical and avoids the consumption of plastic bottles harmful to the environment, ”recalls Dr. Decourt. Among the less mineralized are: Mont-Blanc, Rosée de la Reine, Mont Roucous, Evian, Cristalline.
” In stage 3 and more of renal failure, it may be interesting, on the advice of your doctor only, to turn to a bicarbonate water in order to alkalinize the organism ”, specifies the nephrologist. Among the bicarbonate mineralized waters, we find Vichy Célestins, Saint Yorre, Arvie, Contrex, Hepar. “However, we must be careful with the salt intake provided by these waters,” warns the nephrologist.